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By Waltraud Q. Morales

Compliment for the former variation: ...the author's devotion to Bolivia and obstacle for its destiny shines through...Recommended.--Choice

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Historian Victor Von Hagen writes that Sapa-Inca in his palace in Cuzco could dine on fresh fish from the coast carried along the Inca Road over the highest Andes, a distance of 200 miles, in only two days. Shortly before the coming of the Spanish in the 16th century, the highly developed Inca Empire began to decline. Critical to its demise were the division of the empire and resulting civil war between the brothers and dual rulers Huáscar and Atahuallpa, as well as growing local 11 Inca Empire Bogotá COLOMBIA Quito ECU ECUADOR Guayaquil Tumi mi Pampa Tumbes BRAZIL Cajamarca Chan Chan PERU Chavín Chavi Huanuco Lima Machu Picchu Cuzco Wari Willka Waman Arequipa La Paz Tiwanaku BOLIVIA Paria PARAGUAY CHILE Pacific Ocean Tucumán ARGENTINA 0 0 250 Miles 250 Kilometers Santiago Modern cities Incan cities N Incan roads Extent of Incan Empire Modern country boundary 12 THE ANCIENT INDIAN PEOPLES uprisings among distant and partially subdued tribes such as the one in 1470 by the Bolivian AymaraKolla, who had retained their Aymara language and distinct cultural identity despite the repeated waves of Quechua conquest and colonization.

In this way, the government hoped that a redefined and proactive strategy of continental regionalism would serve multiple purposes by also deflecting the internal divisiveness and traditional parochialism among the different regions of the country. Powerful regional forces within Bolivia influenced the country’s history and socioeconomic development. Bolivia inherited from Spain’s decentralized colonial rule a tradition of localism and regionalism that hampered national integration and balanced economic growth.

The people of the highlands are known as kollas (after one of the ancient Aymara kingdoms) and distinguish themselves from the cambas, the people native to the semitropical and tropical lowlands of Bolivia’s interior. The typical Bolivian highlander has more in common with a highlander from Peru or Chile than with a compatriot of the lowlands. And the Bolivian lowlander identifies more closely with his or her counterpart in Brazil and Argentina. xxxi A BRIEF HISTORY OF BOLIVIA Historically, the central government confronted secessionist movements, especially in the country’s southeastern departments, where lowlander citizens preferred Argentine to Bolivian rule.

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