Download A concise grammar of Polish by Oscar Swan PDF

By Oscar Swan

A Concise Grammar of Polish is meant to be used as a supplementary reference textual content at the starting and intermediate degrees of Polish language research. it's also appropriate to be used because the basic textual content in a path on Polish morphology (although workouts would have to be supplied via the instructor).
Phonological and morphological methods are given particular therapy and representation all through. Sections on declension and conjugation objective at an entire description of all commonplace and so much abnormal phenomena. Descriptions of types are liberally supplemented with comments touching on derivation, utilization, and adjustments among Polish and English.

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Example text

Fem. ) miodu 'honey (gen. ) utworu 'composition (gen. ) soli 'salt (gen. ) Nominative sing. before voiced: wóz róg twój miód utwór Other past forms: niosła 'carry (3sg. ), niosłem (1sg. ) 3sg. masc. past tense: niósł 1. o~u sól 35 2. ę~ą wiozła 'transport by vehicle (3sg. ), wiozłem (1sg. ) wiózł Non-zero ending: osa 'wasp' cnota 'virtue' obora 'cow barn' Genitive plur. before all consonants: ós cnót obór Non-zero ending: Nominative sing. before voiced: dębu 'oak (gen. ) męża 'husband (gen. ) zęby 'tooth (nom.

One can obviously see that this ending is not phonologically predictable by comparing the unsuffixed pole ‘field’, with its zero ending Gpl. pól, to the Gpl. of przedpole, which is przedpoli, with the -y/-i ending. Since nouns such as zdjęcie can take the zero Gpl. and be difficult to structurally distinguish from przedpole, neuters with non-zero Gpl. may have to be learned on a lexical basis. Neuter nouns with nominative singular in -ę. This small group of nouns has an extra stem syllable which does not appear in the Nsg.

Nsg. = Nsg. Plural muzea = Npl. muzeów muzeach muzeom muzeami = Npl. 57 Chapter 4. Polish Adjectival Declension and Comparison. Notes on the Adverb Adjectival declension primarily differs from nominal in that adjectives do not have a inherent, unchanging gender, but agree in gender with the noun they modify. Consequently, the number of grammatical forms possible for a given adjective is much larger than the number a noun can have, since the adjective will have masculine, neuter, and feminine forms in the singular, plus virile and non-virile forms in the plural.

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