By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough reports ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar experiences the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse gains of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological positive aspects, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our realizing of the advance of the Uto-Aztecan kinfolk of languages in old and areal standpoint.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
These forms look like causatives of the verbs hewin ‘carry in 22 Phonology one hand’ and tewe(n) ‘to grow, of plants’ respectively. 3), and it may be that this rule should be extended to the case of root-final glides. However, these are the only examples of this process. 4. P RACTICAL ORTHOGRAPHY . In this grammar and in other publications on the language, Cupeño words are written in a practical orthography, except where a phonetic transcription is specifically required as in a few of the examples above.
D. 3. Vowel deletion and epenthesis 37 However, if the suffix vowel has not been deleted, the vowel before the plural suffix -m will be i. (79) a. alwet ‘crow’, alwetim ‘crows’ b. iswet ‘wolf’, iswetim ‘wolves’ c. ngiiyqat ‘is gonna go’, ngiiyqatim ‘are gonna go’ In this group of words, deletion of the vowel in -we-t or -qat would have led to a prohibited super-heavy CCC sequence, *alwtim, *iswtim, *ngiiyqtim.
Nangiwtam ‘warriors’ < nangi-we-t-m c. qeyuwtam ‘whales’ < qeyu-we-t-m ‘whale’ If a super-heavy syllable would result, the vowel is not lost. 32 (59) Phonology a. hunwetim ‘bears’ < hun-we-t-m, *hunwtim b. a$hwetim ‘eagles’ < a$h-we-t-m, *a$hwtim Examples with -qat ‘purposive nominalization/immediate future tense’ followed by plural also illustrate deletion. In (60a), the a of the suffix -qat has been lost, while in (60b), where a super-heavy syllable would result from deletion, it is retained.