By Bernd Heine, Derek Nurse
Greater than 40 years in the past it was once verified that the African continent will be divided into 4 detailed language households. learn on African languages has hence been preoccupied with reconstructing and knowing similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in different kinds of linguistic courting, corresponding to even if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant examine. This ebook indicates that such similarities throughout African languages are extra universal than is largely believed. It presents a extensive viewpoint on Africa as a linguistic sector, in addition to an research of particular linguistic areas. as a way to have a greater realizing of African languages, their constructions, and their heritage, additional information on those contact-induced relationships is key to realizing Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its historical past and prehistory.
enter site Read or Download A linguistic geography of Africa PDF
enter Similar geography books
Magnetic storms can cause harm to satellites, radiation risk to astronauts, disruption of radio communications, and interruption of floor electrical strength strains. house climate prediction turns into an enormous factor to be addressed within the twenty-first century. overseas sunlight Terrestrial software (ISTP) employs 5 satellites to probe the sun wind and magnetosphere, supplying priceless details for area climate prediction.
Greater than 40 years in the past it was once validated that the African continent might be divided into 4 precise language households. study on African languages has for this reason been preoccupied with reconstructing and knowing similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in different kinds of linguistic courting, corresponding to even if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant learn.
This publication is filled with nice information at the orlando sector in addition to disney.
The Arab Gulf States own greater than half the planet’s crude oil reserves, and their fuel reserves are titanic. The transition from being condominium economies to generating economies has triggered fast and demanding alterations, together with the inflow of overseas (Arab and Asian) guide workers, and striking city improvement, quite alongside the coast.
Extra resources for A linguistic geography of Africa
Furthermore, the placement of nominal modifiers after the head noun appears to be more widespread in Africa than in most other parts of the world. Thus, in Heine’s (1976: 23) sample of 300 African languages, demonstrative attributes are placed after the noun in 85 percent, adjectives in 88 percent, and numerals in 91 percent of all languages. Another characteristic in the arrangement of meaningful elements relates to verbal structure: in most African languages, pronominal subject clitics or affixes precede the tense markers (93 percent), which again precede the verb (83 percent), while adverbs follow the verb 93 percent (Heine 1976: 24).
Meeussen 1975: 3) The following example from the Kuliak language So may illustrate the goosefile model, where an item to be located is conceptualized not as facing the speaker but rather as facing the same direction as the speaker. at people behindABL ‘There are people in front of the hill’ so´G hill There is another conceptualization strategy that has been proposed as an Africanism (Meeussen 1975), being one manifestation of what is usually called the inclusive or inclusory construction, which is used in reference to a plural that refers to a set of individuals and includes two explicit constituents.
Based on structural evidence from a wide range of languages, Tom Gu¨ldemann is able to demonstrate in chapter 5 that an areal approach offers the most convincing means to account for these affinities. A number of the typological properties studied by him are considered by some to be characteristic of Africa as a whole (see chapter 2), but their clustering in the vast area between West and East Africa – cutting across genetic boundaries, including those of three of the four African language phyla – in fact suggests that the Macro-Sudan hypothesis is a robust one, even if the boundaries of this area are fuzzy.