By Nikolai Krementsov
Much like Vladimir Lenin, his onetime rival for the management of the Bolshevik social gathering in the course of its adolescence, Alexander Bogdanov (1873–1928) was once a visionary. In technology fiction novels set on Mars, Bogdanov imagined a destiny within which the employees of the area, liberated from capitalist exploitation, create a “physiological collective” that rejuvenates and unites its contributors via typical blood exchanges. yet Bogdanov was once now not in simple terms a dreamer. He labored tirelessly to popularize and notice his imaginative and prescient, founding the 1st study institute dedicated to the technology of blood transfusion.
In A Martian Stranded on Earth, the 1st broad-based e-book on Bogdanov in English, Nikolai Krementsov examines Bogdanov’s roles as progressive, novelist, and scientist, featuring his protagonist as a coherent philosopher who pursued his principles in a variety of venues. during the lens of Bogdanov’s involvement with blood reports on one hand, and of his fictional and philosophical writings at the different, Krementsov bargains a nuanced research of the interactions among clinical principles and societal values.
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Extra info for A Martian Stranded on Earth: Alexander Bogdanov, Blood Transfusions, and Proletarian Science
In the fall of the same year, Shamov left Petrograd to accept the position of head surgeon at the Kharkov University Medical School. The group he had created at the VMA surgical clinic, with the active support of its returned head, Fedorov, continued his work on blood transfusions. Shamov’s former assistant Nikolai Elanskii (1894–1964) assumed a leadership role. The following year, in a series of “university manuals” he was editing, Fedorov issued the Russian translation of a short book on blood transfusions written by French surgeon Dupuy de Frenelle (1923).
The editor in chief certainly used his editorial powers to include the text of Shamov’s report to the VMA conference in the first issue of his journal (Shamov 1921). In September, Fedorov took a leave of absence from his VMA clinic and appointed Shamov as its acting head. With Fedorov’s blessings, Shamov immediately organized a small group of undergraduate and graduate students to study blood groups, to manufacture the standard sera for blood typing, and to expand the use of blood transfusions in his own clinical practice.
He carefully studied the organization of the Mayo clinics. He closely observed Carrel’s famous experiments on tissue cultivation and organ transplants. He Chapter 2 X 22 X spent several months at Cushing’s laboratory in Boston, conducting experiments on the physiology of the pituitary gland and the vagus nerve and—with Cushing’s assistance—eventually publishing his results in the American Journal of Physiology (Boothby and Shamov 1915; Shamov 1915–16a, 1915–16b). 26 After several dozen experiments on dogs, in 1906 he successfully performed a direct blood transfusion from human to human, surgically connecting the donor’s artery with the recipient’s vein.