Download A Simplified Grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish Language by James W. Redhouse PDF

By James W. Redhouse

The Ottoman Language is the main hugely polished department of the good Turkish tongue, that is spokon, with dialectic diversifications, around the complete breadth, approximately, of the center area of the continent of Asia, impinging into Europe, even, within the Ottoman provinces, and likewise, in Southern Russia, as much as the frontiers of the outdated state of Poland. The Ottoman language is, in its grammar and vocabulary, essentially Turkish. It has, notwithstanding, followed, and maintains progressively more to undertake, as required, an enormous variety of Arabic, Porsian, and international phrases (Greek, Armenian, Slavonic, Hungarian, Italian, French, English, etc.), including using some of the grammatical ideas of the Arabic and Porsian, that are given as Turkish ideas within the following pages, their foundation being in each one case specific. the good Turkish language, turkje, Ottoman and non-Ottoman, has been classed, via eu writers as one of many " agglutinative" languages ; now not inflTable of Contents Preface ; word on identification of Alphabets xii; bankruptcy I Letters and ORTnooiurnr; part I quantity, Order, Forma, and Names of; Letters 1; Synopsis of Arabic, Greek, and Latin; Letters four; ? II Phonetic Values of Letters, Vowel-Points, Orthographic symptoms, Transliteration, Ottoman Euphony 15; bankruptcy IL Ottoman Accidence; part I Nouns major fifty one; ? II Nouns Adjective GS; ? III Numerals seventy four; , IV Pronouns eighty two; vi; desk of contents; part V Demonstratives 8b; ? VI Interrogatives 89; ? VII Relative Pronouns ninety; ? VIIIDerivation of Verbs ninety two; (Table) ninety four; ? IX Conjugation of Verbs ; Moods; Tenses ;; Participles; Verbal Nouns; Gerunds ninety nine; ? X Numbers aiul Tersons a hundred and fifteen ? XI advanced different types of Verbs , 119; ? XII First complicated classification one hundred twenty ? XIII moment ? ? one hundred twenty five; ? XIV 3rd ? 129; ? XV mixed (Turkish) Conjugation 133; ? XVI adverse and Impotential Conjugations , a hundred thirty five; ? XVII Dubitative, power, and Facile Verbs 141; ? XVII I Verb major one hundred forty four; ?

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Extra resources for A Simplified Grammar of the Ottoman-Turkish Language (Classic Reprint)

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J. W . ) (Lon don: Luzac and Com pany, 1 9 0 4 ) , III, 154. 36 Chapter 2 Ottoman Society and Institutions /-pi jL he Ottomans did not realize at once that they had lost more than just a great ghazi with the death of Suleiman the Magnificent. Under his son and successor, Selim II, military pressure against the W est was maintained on land and even increased on the Mediterranean. The holy war was extended into new areas, and North Africa became a major zone of confrontation between the Ottomans and the Hapsburgs.

Officials charged with the performance of the survey found out the names of all adult males who worked the land, the number of households in existence, types of crops and their yields over the past several years, and the amount of each crop collected as taxes, as well as the rate of all money levies made in the region. From this information a record was compiled of all the taxpayers and the sources of their income. Tahrirs were initially carried out upon the conquest of a region and subsequently they could be undertaken for any of the following reasons: if a new sultan acceded to the 42 Ottoman Society and Institutions throne; if a radical change, usually a diminution, occurred in the income derived from a sanjak; if the government desired to integrate into the tax structure any forms of wealth that had been overlooked in previous surveys; or if the government needed to take note of changes in person­ nel or property that may have occurred over time.

In the course of swift campaigns in 1516 and 1517, during which Otto­ man artillery and firepower overcame Mamluk horseman­ ship, he had made himself master of the Mamluk domains, including Syria, Egypt, and the Hejaz. Selim’s drive to the Red Sea may have been his response to the oceanic revolu­ tion ushered in by Vasco da Gama's circumnavigation of Africa and by the extension of Portuguese naval strength to the Indian Ocean. Ottoman expansion into North Africa between 1515 and 1519 can be seen in the same light.

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