By Gregorio Millán Barbany
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The correlation between parameters in such complicated models is, however, severe, and very often a simple Monod model (7-92) with only one limiting substrate is sufficient. , in bioremediation of toxic waste a high concentration of the organic substrate can well lead to severe inhibition or death of the microorganism). When product inhibition is present, µ maxCs Cp µ= ᎏ 1− ᎏ Ks + Cs Cpmax (7-152) Here the typical example is the inhibitor effect of ethanol on yeast growth. , production of biofuel by fermentation.
The Nernst equation applies to the surface concentrations (or activities in case of nonideal solutions): RT Eeq ϭ Eo Ϫ ᎏ ln(∏ aνi,surf) nF i (7-162) 7-33 If mass transfer is limiting, then a limiting current is obtained for each chemical species i: nFDiCi ji,lim ϭ ᎏ ϭ nFkL,iCi δ (7-163) where Di is the diffusion coefficient, δ is the boundary layer thickness, and kL,i is the mass-transfer coefficient of species i. The effect of mass transfer is included as follows: ΄ j j j ϭ j0 1 Ϫ ᎏ e −(αnF/RT)ηact Ϫ 1 Ϫ ᎏ e [(1Ϫα)nF/RT]ηact ja,lim jc,lim Ci,surf j ᎏ ϭ 1Ϫ ᎏ Ci ji,lim i ϭ o,r ΅ (7-164) Ohmic Control The overall electrochemical reactor cell voltage may be dependent on the kinetic and mass-transfer aspects of the electrochemical reactions; however, a third factor is the potential lost within the electrolyte as current is passing through this phase.
Ysx X + YscCO2 + Ysp1P1 + . . + YswH2O (7-147) Here the reactants (substrates) are glucose (CH2O), O2, NH3, and a sulfur-providing nutrient S1, and the products are biomass X, CO2, metabolic product P1, and H2O. The products of bioreactions can be reduced or oxidized, and all feasible pathways have to be redox neutral. , nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and these have to be included in the stoichiometric balances as H equivalents through redox balancing. For instance, for the reaction of glucose to glycerol (CH8/3O), 13ᎏᎏ NADH equivalent is consumed: 1 CH2O + ᎏ NADH ⇒ CH8/3O 3 (7-148) The stoichiometry in the biochemical literature often does not show H2O produced by the reaction; however, for complete elemental balance, water has to be included, and this is easily done once an O2 requirement has been determined based on a redox balance.