Download Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and by Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill PDF

By Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen Carolyn J. Hill

Ebook through Carolyn J. Hill, Harry J. Holzer, and Henry Chen

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Extra resources for Against the Tide: Household Structure, Opportunities, and Outcomes Among White and Minority Youth

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High school GPAs and ASVAB percentile scores are lower, on average, for Hispanics and especially for blacks, compared with whites (see also Jencks and Phillips 1998). Within racial groups, young women have comparable or higher outcomes than young men, and relatively large gaps are observed between young black women and men. That gender differences in grades are somewhat larger than differences in ASVAB percentiles suggests behavioral, rather than cognitive, differences in school outcomes by gender.

These wage differences may widen as these young people age and their differences in ability and job performance become more observable to employers and affect wage growth over time (Altonji and Pierret 2001). The negative effect of being a high school dropout on weeks worked is quite strong, with dropouts working almost nine weeks less on average than nonenrolled high school and college graduates (relative to overall sample means of about 39 weeks worked per year). Achievement differences between the best and worst students would add to these effects by a few additional weeks.

Most all cases. These trends are consistent with prior research showing that female labor force activity has grown more rapidly than that of males for several decades (Juhn and Potter 2006) and in the 1980s corresponded with more rapid wage growth (Blau and Kahn 1997). 18 Some gain in relative wages for black men compared to white men is observed: the gap between the wages of white and black men shrank from 18 percent in 1987 to 14 percent in 2005. However, this pattern is likely driven by the withdrawal of lower-wage workers from the labor force altogether (Chandra 2003), and thus is an artifact of the composition of the wage-earning sample.

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