By C.R.A. Godfrey
Bargains an intensive review of the real agricultural functions of either normal items and artificial compounds derived from typical items, offering targeted details at the isolation, structural experiences, organic job and toxicology of those compounds. The increasing sector of insecticidal common items is highlighted.
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Insofar as the major electron-withdrawing group on the pyrrole ring was concerned, cyano was shown to be generally equal to or better than nitro. The presence of an electronegativelysubstituted phenyl ring in place of the more complex substituent in the 2-POsition of 36 was found to give a very effective series of novel insecticides. Indeed, compounds such as 37, 39,and 40 showed caterpillar activity superior to the "lead" 36, and 39 proved an effective acaricide as well. When the halogen in the 5-position of the pyrrole ring was replaced by a CF, group to give 42, the result was a potent broad-spec trum insectiade/acaricide.
By using growth inhibition and toxicity to three lepidopteran species asthe guide, pellitorine along with four other previously identified isobutylamides were isolated from the bark of the tree Fuguru rnucrophyllu (Rutaceae). Pellitorine, with an LD, of 24 ppm was the most toxic and the best growth inhibitor. It did not kill larvae of the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), corn earworm (Heliothis zea), or fall armyworm (Spodopteru frugiperdu) . , Burke and co-workers isolated significant amounts of the butenolides Z- and E-fadyenolide (64, Figure 11) .
2-( 6-chloro-2-pyridyl)-5-(2thieny1)thiophene (SS), were highly active in a water screen against these nematodes under light. VIII. CHROMENES Chromenes (benzopyrans) and benzofurans of diverse structures are known from many species of higher plants, but the majority occur in the Asteraceae. Their distribution and biological activities along with the structures of 167 isolated compounds has been reviewed. Outside of the precocenes, 6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethylchromeneand 7methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene,noted for their ability to induce precocious metamorphosis in some insects by destroying the gland that secretes juvenile hormone , several other chromenes have attracted attention as insecticides.